• How to make leaf mould

    Autumn has arrived and the trees surrounding our allotment are busy littering our neglected veggie beds and adjoining pathways with their crispy detritus. It’s a tidy-up task we rarely relish, but having recently conducted both rake and brush product reviews for the Indy Best, and currently testing Stihl’s new cordless Kombi engine (complete with leaf blower attachment), we are properly tooled up to conquer this annual leafy intrusion.

    First we’ll herd the pesky leaves into a huge pile, from which we’ll make some nutritious, humus rich compost for next year’s plants.

    It’s easy! Here’s how to make it…

    How to make leaf mould

    Step 1: Gather
    First off, sweep, rake or blow your leaves into a large pile.*

    Step 2: Bag
    Stuff your gathered leaves into a large bin bag (or bags).

    Step 3: Water
    Give the bag of leaves a soaking from your trustiest watering can, prod some holes in the sides of the bag, then tie the bag shut to stop leaves jumping out and running away.

    Step 4: Wait
    Leave your leafy bags in an out-of-the way place in your garden and WAIT. Your leaves will rot down into a rich, crumbly mixture – a process which will take around 12-18 months. To speed things up a little, run the leaves over with a mower before bagging and you’ll be flinging lovely leaf mould around within 6-8 months.

    If you can’t bear the wait, you can always use your collected leaves as a garden mulch. Give them a good soaking to help weigh them down and pack them around your plants to keep them warm overwinter whilst discouraging weeds to join the battle for soil space.

    For the even lazier, just let your pile of leaves be. A decent pile of leaves in an out-of-the-way place will be much appreciated by garden wildlife, acting as an insect larder and a warm place to kip during the cold winter nights.

    Our brush of choice is the Bulldozer, which we** recently rated as ‘number one’ in our Indy Best brush roundup. Ours was kindly supplied by Bentley Tools, and is available to buy here…

    https://www.buydirect4u.co.uk/product/garden-outdoor/garden-outdoor-garden-tools/bentley-garden-bulldozer-yard-broom/

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    * Be wary of drive-by dog attacks.

    **I say ‘we’ but mean ‘me’. When Nick divvied up the last round of Indy Best reviews to write, he suspiciously pulled out ‘Best Beer Hampers’ and ‘Best Tequilas and Mezcals’. I got brooms and rakes…

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  • Cider(s) of the Week: Crafty Nectar No.7 & No.8

    Having recently attended Bristol’s harbour-side Craft Beer Festival with its incredible array of tasty boozes, we were dismayed to find a severe lack of quality ciders on offer. Admittedly it was – after all – a craft beer fest so this kind of over-sight was not entirely unexpected, but it did make us sad and ponder how underserved (literally) cider is at these such events. We wandered over to the banks of the Avon (with amazing craft beers in hand) and looked longingly across to the opposite shore where the Bristol Cider shop lies, and dreamt of the juicy treats within. The sadness didn’t last – maybe a couple of minutes tops – and we were soon assaulting (not literally) the bar in a quest for more tasty beer. It did however spark our apple-y appetite to reacquaint ourselves with some nice ciders, and the following day we pledged to do so – as soon as our crushing, hoppy hangovers had receded sufficiently.

    As luck would have it, a brace of ciders arrived in the post the following week. The bottles hailed from Crafty Nectar – cider box distributors, apple aficionados and recent sponsors of standing stone blasphemy – who have been busy putting their considerable cider knowledge into good use and producing their own special range of ciders.

    Packaging-wise, Crafty Nectar have shunned the traditional farm-house style often spied on cider packaging (tractors, horses, hoary old farmers etc.) and gone for modern, jazzy labels in the craft beer style. Closer inspection of No. 7 revealed the background pattern to be made of rhinoceros* shapes, whilst naughty No. 8 appears to be clad in a coat of drooping breasts**. Pondering the significance of this incongruous imagery, the cap was popped on the rhinoceros cider and contents poured into a willing glass.

    Initial sips revealed a clean tasting, lightly carbonated cider with a lemon sherbet nose. It’s quite fruity, with traces of pineapple. Yarlington Mill and Dabinett are the apples name checked on the bottle. There’s a slight bitterness from the Dabinett but we didn’t get too much of a hit from the Yarlies which, in our experience, can be quite dominant. Rhinoceros cider No.7 is a good ‘un – not too ‘farmhouse’ so to scare off first time worshipers at the chapel of apple, but still packing plenty of flavour to keep cider aficionados interested.

    Next up, droopy breast No.8 which, controversially, contains rhubarb. Now mention to a traditional cider-maker that you’ve made a cider and blended it with something other than apples and there’s a good chance you’ll be on the end of a sound thrashing from a panking pole.***  Adding alien ingredients is considered a crime against the apple amongst many members of the cider-making community. And thanks to certain sickly sweet abominations that lurk on the supermarket shelves, it often is.****

    No.8,  however, is how it should be done. It’s cloudier than No.7, and comes in an amber bottle – presumably to help retain its pleasantly pink hue. On first sip, you get a tart taste of rhubarb, which builds the more you glug. A heavy handed cider maker could easily have tip the scales in favour of the rhubarb, but this blend harmonises beautifully and gives the cider an extra acidic twang. It’s a lovely balanced, refreshing cider – our only gripe being that the craft-friendly 330ml bottle left us wanting more. Great work, Crafty! We’re looking forward to  your next apple-y offering. *****

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    Get yours here…

    Cider Bottle Shop


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    *Rhinoceroces? Rhinocerice?

    ** It’s a design thing.

    *** A large pole used to dislodge apples from apple trees.

    ****KOPPARBERG

    ***** And especially looking forward to being invited to the next Stonehenge disco event.*****

    ****** Massive hint

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  • What is a chiminea and how do I use one?

    Last month I received an email from online retailers chimineashop.co.uk asking if I would like to review a Gardeco Toledo Cast Iron Chiminea. Recent review requests had either been too poor to feature on our site* or too inappropriate** but a chiminea sounded like an ideal piece of kit for our digging and swigging remit.

    I’ve always fancied having a go on a chiminea to see how effective they are, but have never got round to trying one. Rich, however, is something of an expert having written about the subject for the Independent – an article that included the Extra Large version of the Large model that chimineashop.co.uk were offering up for review.

    The Gardeco Toledo Cast Iron Chiminea arrived a week later, a heavy square box that clearly meant some self-assembly was required, but this task had to wait for the duration of a holiday and a few weekends of autumnal rain. Eventually an unseasonably warm Sunday came my way and chiminea construction and testing began.

    Initially the instructions looked too sparse for the amount of nuts and bolts laid out on my carpet (they recommend building on a soft, flat surface to avoid damage before transporting outside) but when assembly began I soon realised there’s very little that can go wrong: it’s very obvious where each bit fits. Despite the relative simplicity of construction it still took a little over an hour to fix it all together, with most of the time taken by tightening nuts in increasingly hard to reach places. Only one minor cuss was emitted during a slightly awkward left handed spanner (provided) manoeuvre.

    chiminea construction

    What is a chiminea?

    Before describing how well it performed it’s probably worth briefly explaining what chimineas are. Originally they were a Mexican cooking oven, designed for heating up all sorts of Mexican nosh within the house***, but more recently they’ve been adapted to become a device to provide outdoor heating in the chilly British climate, with the option of cooking being an extra on some models (including the one I was about to test).

    They work very much like the living room stove, with a large belly that contains the fire, lit on a grate above the base, and attached to a chimney that funnels the smoke northwards. Vents near the base allow air to flow through the chiminea and can be used to control the intensity of the fire. Being made of cast iron, our chiminea gets extremely hot (proper gloves are recommended) meaning it retains heat long after the flames have died down.

    How did it perform?

    The instruction booklet recommends that no toddlers or pets are anywhere near the chiminea when it’s in use. I have both so waited for the former to be tucked up in bed before striking the match, by which time it was late and I had already eaten, so the handy pull-out cooking tray would have to be tested another time. However, the dark Autumnal evening provided the perfect opportunity to see how effective it was as a source of heat.

    The fire lit easily enough using the same firelighter and kindling method I use on the stove and there was ample room in its belly to get a good supply of wood loaded into it (you can also use charcoal as a fuel). Flames were roaring in no time and even from the initial knidling burn I could feel the heat. The Gardeco Toledo Cast Iron Chiminea is a solid, impressive structure that looks perfectly at home in the garden (in Rich’s piece he describes is having “a certain traction engine aesthetic”) and with a glowing red belly of fire it makes a great focal point to an evening outside, with the heat more than taking the chill out of the air.

    The chiminea now sits beneath its custom designed rain cover waiting for the next time I’m ready to stoke up the flames. I’m very much looking forward to cooking on it, so if anyone has any cooking suggestion then let me know and I’ll fire it up again.

    The Gardeco Toledo Cast Iron Chiminea can be found here

    cast iron chiminea photo

    *a sickly beer flavoured with elderflower syrup

    **the illustrated history of Inter Milan

    ***do not attempt to use one inside. Ever.

     

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  • How to make beetroot chutney

    Down on the plot, we’ve been busy battling an unwinnable war with the powdery mildew that has blighted our pumpkin patch. We’ve not really been paying attention to the Pablo beetroots that we shoved behind our somewhat out-of-control Jerusalem artichoke jungle, and after weeks of favourable weather, our purple Pablo pals have ballooned to the size of knobbly cricket balls. We usually coax our beets into making a magenta-hued wine, but this year we decided instead to pummel them into chutney. Not just any old chutney, mind…. our effort is fine and fiery thanks to a supporting cast of scotch bonnet and cheyenne chillies, freshly plucked from the bowels of our mini poly tunnel.

    Your sink will look like a crime scene, your family will hate the smell, but your cheese sarnies will never have tasted so good. Here’s how to make it…

    Ingredients (this will make approx 4 jars)

    1 kg beetroot, peeled and finely chopped
    1 tbsp ground ginger
    2 fat chillis
    2 onions
    500ml red wine vinegar. Or cider vinegar/malt vinegar if you fancy.
    2 cooking apples
    500g golden caster sugar
    2 tbs mustard seed

    Method

    1. Lob the ingredients into a large cooking pot, put on the lid and bring to a simmer.
    2. Cook for 45 minutes, removing the lid for the last 10 minutes to help thicken your chutney.
    3. Prepare your jam jars by sterilising them. You can do this by either (a) bunging them in a dishwasher at the highest temperature setting. (b) Wash the jars in soapy water, then place them in an over at 140 ºC/210 ºF/Gas Mark 1 for 15-20 minutes. Or (c) use a sterilising solution such as VWP.
    4. Spoon your champion chutney into the jars and if you can resist temptation, allow to mature in a cool cupboard for a month.

     

     

    For those wanting a less spicy, ginger-heavy chutney*, try Nick’s effort, here.

    * And in many ways, an inferior chutney.

     

     

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  • A guide to types of sherry (and how to drink them)

    We haven’t previously featured much information on sherry. The only times it tends to get mentioned are either when we’re enjoying a whisky that has been aged in sherry casks or if one of our home made wines has turned out stronger than expected, giving it a boozier sherry-like flavour.

    For sherry novices like us, choosing what type to buy isn’t obvious, so we’ve teamed up with sone of Spain’s oldest producers, Bodegas Barón, to find out more about each style and what to drink them with. They own three Albariza vineyards, totalling about 140 ha. in the area surrounding their base in Sanluca, and their portfolio has three levels – Micaela, Xixarito and Soluqua – which refer to the varying lengths of time the sherries have been aged.

    What is Sherry?

    Sherry is a fortified white wine made from grapes grown near the city of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia (the word ‘sherry’ is simply a re-spelling of Jerez for English folk who couldn’t get their chops around the Spanish accent) and there are various styles depending on factors such as the wine’s sweetness, how long the sherry is aged, and levels of oxidisation.

    What are the types of sherry available?

    To give you a guide to the different sherry styles, and how best to drink them, we’ve picked out some of the main types as outlined below…

    Fino

    These light sherries are the driest available and tend to have around 15% to 17% alcohol by volume. They’re aged in a ‘Solera’ (ageing barrel) and are covered by a ‘flor’ (layer of yeast) which prevents oxidisation. They’ll have an almond aroma and a slight acidic bite to the dryness.

    How to drink Fino: Serve chilled and enjoy with salty food. Great for a tapas starter of salty meats or nuts.

    Manzanilla

    A Manzanilla is very similar to a Fino sherry in production but is made on coastal regions (Fino sherries are produced inland). It has a similar dry snap to it and most experts will claim the sea air gives it an even lighter feel.

    How to drink Manzanilla: Another chilled serving with salty tapas accompaniments is best and, given its place of production, seafood is its ideal partner.

    Amontillado

    To make this sherry the protective Flor used for Fino sherries is allowed to naturally break up, exposing the booze to the air and causing oxidisation. This results in a dry sherry with a darker tone and some earthier, nuttier notes coming through to the palette.

    How to drink Amontillado: This only needs to be lightly chilled and is great with more flavoursome tapas and main course dishes such as chorizo or grilled fish.

    Palo Cortado

    This is an unusual sherry that you won’t find too readily owing to the seemingly random ageing process it goes through. It starts out the same way as an Amontillado (with a flor that breaks up) but by some mysterious kind of Spanish magic it develops a darker, reddish hue and richer, buttery flavours (similar to an Oloroso).

    How to drink Palo Cortado: It’s another dry sherry so can be served in a similar way to Amontillados but we think its special production calls for a special kind of foodstuff: pork scratchings.

    Oloroso

    These dark sherries are made from a wide range of grapes and can therefore come in a wide range of styles, from sweet to dry. The protective flor is intentionally broken up during ageing which gives them their richer colour and more intense toffee flavours. They’ll also be stronger, fortified to over 18%.

    How to drink Oloroso: Lightly chill and serve with bolder flavours for leisurely supping. A good Spanish cheese such as manchego is hard to beat.

    Pedro Ximénez

    This sherry is made from Pedro Ximénez grapes, a sweet variety that is allowed to dry in the sun before fermentation. It tends to have a lower alcohol content to other sherries, a dessert wine sweetness and syruppy texture, with lots of rich fruit and molasses flavours.

    How to drink Pedro Ximénez: As with dessert wines this is to be served lightly chilled and either enjoyed as the last course of a meal (especially if you’re skipping dessert) or with a not-too-sweet pudding.

    Sweet Sherries and Cream Sherries

    These categories are sherries that have been sweetened. Anything simply labelled as a ‘Sweet Sherry’ is likely to be a sherry sweetened with Pedro Ximénez grape juice whereas a Cream Sherry is sweetened with the Pedro Ximénez sherry. Confused? Don’t be – just see them as richly flavoured, sweet sherries and get on with enjoying them.

    How to drink Sweet and Cream Sherries: These are the sherries to drink with dessert. Drizzle over ice cream, guzzle with a slice of cheesecake or sup with some custard creams on your granny’s sofa on a Sunday afternoon. Delicious.

    Oloroso sherry paired with cheese

    Bodegas Baron sherry is available from leading Spanish restaurants such as Bar 44 which provide the perfect setting for sherry novices to discover more about the various styles and food pairings.

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  • It’s the Ryder Cup Drinking Game!

    Rejoice! Posh retailer Marks & Spencer has added some exclusive beer imports to its already impressive range. This is especially good news for Nick because M&S is his closest supermarket meaning minimal walking for maximum beer pleasure.

    This new range includes the likes of American outfits Ska Brewing, Six Points and Hardywood, Norway’s Aegir and Amundsen Bryggeri, along with four beers from one of our favourite ever breweries, Danish experimenters Mikeller.

    Rejoice again! It’s Ryder Cup weekend. One of the greatest sporting occasions pits Europe’s golfing elite against America’s finest club swingers and we’ll* be glued to the radio and telly for three days, immersed in the tension with a few beers to see us through.

    And if you think this is beginning to sound like we’ve got a daft drinking game lined up for the sporting entertainment then you wouldn’t be wrong…

    Our Ryder Cup Drinking Game: The Rules

    Here’s how it goes. Pick one beer to represent Europe (we’ve opted for Mikeller’s IPA ‘Hair in the mailbox’ in honour of Europe’s captain, Thomas Bjørn, who is also Danish) and one beer to represent America (M&S has been raided for Ska Brewing’s IPA Modus Hoperandi). Then all you need to do is take a swig of the relevant beer when one of these events happens…

    • A player hits a duff shot which the commentator blames on the unique Ryder Cup tension
    • A player hits an outstanding shot which the commentator puts down to the unique atmosphere of the Ryder Cup
    • A player is seen whispering to his playing partner behind a cupped hand
    • A player spins his putter in the air in frustration at missing a putt
    • A player picks a ball out of the hole and does one of those fist-to-fist celebrations with his caddy
    • A player removes his cap before shaking his opponents hand
    • The cameraman pans to a shot of the players wives and girlfriends

    Easy, huh?

    Now load up on beer, enjoy the golf, don’t get too carried away with the booze and, most importantly… EUROPE: GET IN THE HOLE.

    *Maybe not ‘we’. Rich doesn’t much go in for golf. But if there’s beer drinking to be had then he might change his mind…

    M&S cans of beer

    Some of the new beers on sale at M&S. A Ryder Cup fan’s beery dreams…

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  • How to grow pansies and violas

    Pansies, and their smaller cousins violas,* are a garden essential. They can brighten up a border or basket in almost any colour you can think of and, for us, their edibility makes them great for floating on a cocktail** when someone posh comes round to visit. And they’re virtually indestructible, which suits our lazy style of gardening a treat.

    To give you a further flavour of their easy-going, colourful character we’ve put together this growing guide for you to enjoy…

    What are pansies?

    Pansies are five-petaled flowers that come in a huge range of varieties and colours. The name ‘pansy’ derives from the French word ‘pensie’ which means thought or remembrance. Besides their cheery disposition gardeners also love them because they flower in early spring or late autumn, when there’s not much other colour around. They’re rarely troubled by disease and tolerate most conditions, although they’re no so keen on long, hot summer days.

    Sowing

    Although garden centres are nearly always well stocked with cheap trays of pansy and viola plants, they’re not much of a challenge to start from seed (I had some self-seeded violas growing in my lawn this year). Sowing will also give you a greater range of varieties from which to choose – browse the selection at Garden Seeds Market for an idea of what’s available. June and July are the best months for sowing: cast the seeds in a tray or seed bed and they should germinate within a week or two. Prick them out as they grow and when the plants have three or four true leaves they’re ready to move in position.

    Planting up

    If you’ve sown your own seeds for autumn then you’ll probably be planting them up in late August or early September. For shop bought plug plants you can leave it until early October. If you’re looking for spring pansy action then get busy after the danger of frost has passed. They’re at their best in containers, hanging baskets or border edges, dug into some decent compost. If you’re placing them in pots then don’t pack them in too tight as their growth can be quite vigorous as they scrap for water: this year my pansies successfully elbowed a fuchsia into a small corner, starving it of nourishment. If you’re expecting them to hang around through summer then keep them away from full sun, otherwise most spots will be fine (although, as with most bedding plants, too much shade will cause them to get a bit raggedy as they reach out for light).

    Aftercare

    Pansies can be quite thirsty and don’t much care for dry ground so keep on top of watering, especially with those dwelling in pots and baskets. Trim away any dead flowers from time to time, consider giving them a feed if it looks like they’ve sucked the life out of their compost, and enjoy their bright colour charms in the garden and on top of your next cocktail.

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    *What’s the difference between a pansy and a viola?
    It can get a little confusing because pansies belong to the viola family but we tend to refer to violas as the members of the family that aren’t pansies. Pansies are usually larger and have larger leaves but the best way of telling what is a pansy is to look at the five petals. If four of them point upwards then it’s a pansy; if only two point upwards it’s a viola. Voila!

    **Due to their size, violas tend to be a better cocktail garnish, unless you’re serving martinis in buckets

     

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  • Cocktail recipe: Mezcal Margarita

    If you’re looking to conjure up a classic tequila based cocktail then you can’t go far wrong with a Margarita. It’s a drink that, in its basic form, is effortlessly simple and easy to adapt into all sorts of flavour combinations. For this recipe we’re only straying from the classic in one direction, but it’s a fairly major direction: we’re substituting the main ingredient, Tequila, for Mezcal.

    What is mezcal?

    OK, so technically you could argue we’re not deviating from the recipe at all: Mezcal is a spirit made from agave and Tequila is simply a type of Mezcal with restrictions on what kind of agave can be used (blue) and in what part of Mexico it can be made (the state of Jalisco or four other specific regions within Guanajuato, Michoacán, Mayarit and Tamailipas). Mezcals can use any combination of around 30 agaves and are made by a greater variety of production methods so have a wider range of flavours which almost always include some degree of smokiness.

    The Mezcal we’ve chosen for our Margarita, Se Busca Reposado, is a great example of the flavours you can find in a Mezcal with an initial almond sweetness to the distinctive agave flavours, some green pepper and spice hitting mid-sip and just a moderate smokiness that wafts through at the finish of our cocktail. Being labelled a Reposado means it has been aged in oak for between two months and a year (in Se Busca’s case that’s 10 months in French oak barrels) so it has a golden hue along with a few mature woody notes. We think this extra flavour works a treat in a Margarita mix…

    Our easy Mezcal Margarita recipe

    With even the most simple Margarita recipe, folk will argue over the quantities of the three ingredients. The International Bartenders Association prescribe a rather precise 50% Tequila, 29% Cointreau and 21% lime, but we prefer to adopt easier maths and suggest 50%, 25%, 25%.

    Using those sums we’re combining 40ml Mezcal with 20ml Orange Liqueur* and 20ml freshly squeezed lime juice. These ingredients are shaken with a handful of ice and strained into a cocktail glass.** For the full Margarita experience you’ll want to salt your rim: simply rub a bit of lime around the rim of the glass and press it against some salt. A wedge of lime as a garnish completes the piece.

    *Cointreau is usually cited as the orange liqueur of choice but we used the home made orange liqueur from the recipe in our book.

    **There is a variant on the standard cocktail glass that is specially for Margaritas. It has an extra bulge below the main cup. We couldn’t find such an item from our regular glass suppliers – the local charity shops.

    ***I was given some smoked salt ages ago and thought it would work a treat. It didn’t. Unless you think licking a sweaty chain smoker is the ideal way to precede a sip of cocktail. Stick to regular salt instead.

    East Mezcal Margarita Recipe

    Se Busca Reposado + Lime + Orange Liqueur. Mezcal Margaritas made easy

     

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  • Interview: Fermentation revivalist, experimental brewer and booze author Jereme Zimmerman

    Jereme Zimmerman is our kind of home brewer. In his first book, Make Mead Like a Viking, he explores the history of and gives fermentation advice for mead, a booze we’ve had plenty of practice making. And he has now repeated the trick with beer. His latest book, Brew Beer Like a Viking, is partly a historical stroll through the origins of beer, in the days before hops, and partly a recipe book for anyone wishing to brew using methods that are considered unconventional by today’s standards. And there are loads of unusual ingredients to experiment with along the way.

    Eager to find out more about his brewing experiences we rustled up some questions for Jereme and he kindly served up one of the most fascinating set of responses we’ve ever received.

    How did you get into home brewing?
    I started around the year 2000 when I moved from Kentucky to Seattle. I had grown up on a small Kentucky farm and spent my childhood watching my dad make wine (and occasionally sneaking a bottle) in between all of the chores involved in maintaining an old farmhouse and a 40-acre homestead. He mostly made “country wines” from garden produce and fruit he had grown himself. Later in life he told me stories about making corn wine, dandelion wine, sumac wine, and wine from all kinds of other grown and foraged ingredients, including grapes he cultivated himself. From that background I found myself with a yearning for doing some sort of a DIY hobby from my small Seattle apartment. Since I couldn’t throw a stone without hitting a brewery or brewpub, and was much more interested in beer than wine at the time, beer seemed the natural choice. So, I headed up the street to a homebrew shop, picked up a brew kit and a copy of Charlie Papazian’s The Joy of Homebrewing, and headed home to brew up a batch. From there, I brewed several kits, often modifying them with my own ingredients (such as adding some Washington Bing cherries my wife and I had picked into a stout). Over time I relied less and less on kits and eventually went to buying the ingredients separately and creating my own recipes.

    Your book is quite unconventional in that it covers alternatives to standard grains, hops and yeasts. Why did you decide to go down this route?
    Well, I suppose I’m just an unconventional person! I’ve always had a tendency to do exactly the opposite of what I’m told to do and to think the opposite of what I’m told to think. In all seriousness though, I didn’t set out with a goal of brewing with and writing about unconventional techniques and ingredients. My current brewing practices stem from my background of growing up living off the land and my interest in history. As I delved deeper into my research in historical brewing I was surprised to find all manner of ingredients and techniques that just don’t exist, or are heavily frowned upon in modern conventional brewing. I started this all in leading up to my first book Make Mead Like a Viking. I had the thought of looking into how people brewed before they had access to homebrew stores and websites and mead seemed the natural starting point since it is likely the oldest fermented beverage due to its simplicity. I initially documented my experiments and research on a now-defunct homesteading website Earthineer, writing under the penname RedHeadedYeti. I quickly found that there was a strong interest in my style of brewing and writing and began travelling to teach about mead, wrote some magazine articles, and eventually wrote a book. In researching for the first book, I discovered a lot more about beer history than I did about mead and felt that information needed to be put into print as well. When Make Mead Like a Viking had been out a couple of years, my publisher Chelsea Green Publishing asked if I had an interest in doing another book. I was itching to get back into beer brewing and looking deeper into the research I had started, so I got started on what would come to be Brew Beer Like a Yeti.

    You advocate that home brewers should ‘have fun and learn from your mistakes’. What are the notable mistakes you’ve learnt from?
    Ha! Too many to list! I’ve made plenty of tasty brews but due to my penchant for extreme experimentation I make a fair share of not-so-tasty ones. Some “mistakes” I look at more as learning experiences. They weren’t necessarily bad, but sometimes a certain ingredient just didn’t work out because I used too much, too little, or didn’t incorporate it into the brew in the best manner. Others I shared with my wife and some friends and they all claimed to like it, so it was more a matter of my peculiar tastes. I always say that if you don’t like a brew, don’t just toss it in the compost. Give it to your wife or unsuspecting friends and they may just thank you for it! “Mistakes” can also be used in cooking as long as it’s not too dismal of a mistake. Mostly I state that because a lot of first-time homebrewers are daunted by all of the things they hear can go wrong. Those things exist for sure but it’s not that hard to avoid them. T

    o answer your question though, an example of a notable mistake would be the time I brewed a five-gallon batch of wormwood ale. I had read in Stephen Harrod Buhner’s Sacred and Herbal Healing Beers that it was a traditional bittering agent before hops gained prevalence, but he also warned that one would have to be brave to brew with it unless you had a penchant for tongue flagellation. I used what felt like a small amount (half of a one ounce packet from a homebrew supply store) and the result was so bitter it was practically undrinkable. Eventually, I ordered some wormwood from an herbal supplier and decided to brave it again. I compared the taste of the dry herb from the herbal supplier to what was left from the packet from the homebrew store and found that even a tiny amount of the initial packet on my tongue was terrible, while the newly purchased herbs had a noted bitterness but also some floral undertones. I don’t know that this was necessarily a mistake but it was definitely something I learned from. I’ve enjoyed the brews I’ve made with wormwood since that first terrible one. The lesson here is that it’s a good idea to taste (or make a tea from) a new ingredient before brewing with it to make sure you’re going to be able to handle the flavor. 

    And what are the brewing successes you return to time and again?
    When brewing with all grain in particular I like to throw in a lot of adjuncts, but my go-to for a simple, near-foolproof all-grain beer is to just brew with 100% barley pale malt, minimal low-alpha hops (with the occasional herb thrown in), and a British or Belgian ale yeast. I’m pretty much guaranteed a fairly simple brew day and a super tasty beer. When I’m feeling more “ancient” and Scandinavian I do something similar but instead of hops I throw in some juniper branches and berries and ferment with bread yeast. Sometimes I also toss in some meadowsweet and yarrow. These were common ingredients for early Scandinavian beers such as sahti, and are still used in traditional farmhouse brewing in places like Finland and Norway today.

    Besides brewing advice the book is also packed with stories and folklore. Did you have much difficulty in tracking down the historical information?
    Tracking it down wasn’t so much difficult as it was time-consuming. I was an English major in college and have been researching and writing for many years, so I already had a penchant for research. The difficulty was in verifying the information I found. Beer books, even by the most respected of writers, are chock full of myths (the untrue kind, not the storytelling kind) that have been passed down from book to book to the point that they’re accepted as fact. Thankfully I have some friends with similar interests who are dedicated to extreme accuracy in recreating and writing about period brewing who helped me debunk myths and provided me with sources I never would have come across on my own. One in particular is Susan Verberg, a Dutch immigrant who now lives in New York State. She is a historical reenactor and is fluent in Dutch and German. She passed along resources from the Netherlands that were in English, or translated portions for me. She was particularly helpful in researching gruit, although we both find that to be a maddening subject. It originated in the Netherlands and most of what has been written about it very well may not be accurate at all. I touch upon this in Brew Beer Like a Yeti but that’s a subject that needs a lot more solid research… I’m also thankful to a couple of beer blogs I follow religiously, in particular Norway’s Larsblog, Finland’s Brewing Nordic, British beer archeologist Merryn Dineley and British beer writer and beer myth debunker Martyn Cornell’s blog Zythophile. In the end, though, I had to go with what seemed the most accurate. When it comes to history you can never really say for sure and you can drive yourself crazy following what I call rabbit trails. You’ve got to stop at some point!

    If you could drink beer from any time and place in history, where and when would it be?
    I would want to go back as far as possible to when people were first figuring out how to malt grains, crush them with rocks (saddle and quern), and brew by the most rudimentary methods such as heating the wort with hot rocks. I’d really like to know if my attempts at emulating those brews are even remotely close to what they tasted like. Then of course I’d like to fast forward to Viking / Anglo Saxon times and enjoy a good mead hall feast!

    One of your recipes involves using spit as part of the process. Can you briefly explain how that works and how do your friends react when you offer them a taste?
    Yeah, that one tends to gross people out but it’s a very traditional and ancient South American brewing method (and was likely employed by Neolithic man in other periods). It’s really no more gross germ-wise than eating at a restaurant, where you’ll be exposed to many more germs. The spit is involved in the starch conversion process. You boil the wort and ferment it with yeast like you would any other beer, so any spit is long gone by the time you drink it. Although there are many indigenous South American beers brewed this way, chicha is the one most people are familiar with. Chicha can be brewed with standard malted grain (corn instead of barley), but the chicha made by the spit method is chicha de muko (muko are the little spit balls you make from ground up corn). Essentially, human saliva has enzymes that help convert starches to sugars similar to what happens in the malting process. The catalyst for this process is the diastase enzyme (ptyalin), which causes carbohydrates to break down into sugars. I can tell you that it is a very tedious process chewing up all that corn. Even when I soaked the hardened corn kernels in water first, or ground it coarsely it took me a lot of time (and a good amount of Netflix binging) to chew up enough for a one-gallon batch! I could see why this was traditionally done as a communal thing, with everyone sitting in a circle, telling stories and spitting into the same vessel.

    Unfortunately, even the most rustic and adventurous of my friends refused to help. My friend Steve Cole would have, as he’s participated in some of my more extreme brewing adventures, but he had a lot going on in his life at the period I was experimenting with this. I would say I may try it again with Steve someday but to be honest the chicha recipe I have in the book that is made by malting corn kernels the standard way is so delicious I’m not terribly interested in trying the spit thing again! As for offering my friends a taste, well, I’m afraid I drank it all. I may have been able to convince someone but chicha de muko is meant to be drank young while it was still fermenting, as it turns bland and then sour quickly due to the lack of hops or other antiseptic herbs, so I wasn’t waiting around. I can say that it is delicious young. Sweet, flavorful, with just a bit of tang. Some of my friends did try (and enjoy) my chicha made with standard malted corn, malted barley and a hint of hops, though.  

    What are some of the other unusual methods or ingredients readers will come across?
    I would say sahti and other ancient ales are a good example. I found in my research into Scandinavian farmhouse brewing that there was huge range of techniques involving various levels of heating the mash and wort. Some involved little-to-no wort boiling, varying mash temperatures well outside the norm of modern homebrewing, or even boiling the mash and the wort together. Most, but not all, used juniper for bittering, flavoring and disinfecting the brew, and yeast was passed along from brew to brew and from generation to generation. In Finland the same yeast was used for bread baking as beer brewing, hence the use of bread yeast.

    If there’s one ingredient you would encourage home brewers to start experimenting with, what would it be?
    There are so many but one of my new favorites is juniper. Be careful how you source it, though. The juniper used in Scandinavia has edible branches and berries, but there are many forms of juniper that are toxic. They may not kill you but they’ll make you sick. I’m not sure that it is prevalent in the UK so some brewers may need to special order it. If you forage for it in the wild like me, make sure you can 100% positively identify it. There are European varieties that are toxic, usually the ones in shrub form. In the US, it’s best to only use the varieties that are in tree form. Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) are two common edible varieties here, although I understand the flavor may be different than the Scandinavian variety. Juniper is an ingredient that has somehow been nearly completely ignored by brewers and brewing historians. I, and others who are undergoing similar research paths, am finding that it very well may be one of the oldest brewing ingredients and was very likely used much longer than hops. The flavor takes a bit of getting used to but I think it’s a great alternative to hops for its bittering, flavoring and antiseptic qualities. Even better, all I have to do is take a short walk out the back door to gather some!

    Jerem Zimmerman brew beer like a yeti cover

    Jereme Zimmerman’s Brew Beer Like a Yeti (Chelsea Green Publishing, £18.99) is available now

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  • Cocktail recipe: how to make a Dark Rum Daiquiri

    When it comes to rum based cocktails it’s the white rums that receive the call in the majority of recipes. But there are times, particularly when the first autumnal shivers strike, that our eyes glance towards the darker end of our rum range for some toastier, oakier notes in our cocktail creations.

    The Daiquiri is a rum based cocktail, originally designed for the lighter versions of the spirit, that we think works well with darker alternatives. The recipe is little more than a glass of rum that has been sweetened with sugar and soured with lime, so there’s no reason at all why this trick can’t be performed on a few shots of the dark stuff.

    History of the daiquiri

    As with most cocktails the true origins of the Daiquiri are a little hazy and the way it is made and served has changed over the years. It’s a Cuban creation, named after a beach and iron mine, and is claimed to have been invented by an American mining engineer, Jennings Cox, in the early twentieth century.* Over the years it spread in popularity throughout Cuba, eventually making its way to America. J F Kennedy and Ernest Hemingway were both big fans of the drink with the latter having his own variation with grapefruit juice and cherries named after him, one of many alternative servings that have developed over the years.

    The original Daiquiri would’ve been created in a tall glass filled with ice, with the sugar, lime and white rum poured over the top, before evolving into a shake-and-pour drink fit for a classic cocktail glass.

    Our easy Dark Rum Daiquiri recipe

    If you’re using dark rum we think it worth getting a decent one. Our rum of choice is Appleton Estate 12 year old Rare Blend: great in cocktails, good enough to sip neat, and it won’t break the bank account either.

    For our preferred recipe you need, 60ml rum, 20ml freshly squeezed lime juice and 20ml simple syrup.** Pour the ingredients into a shaker with a small handful of ice, give it a quick shake to mix and chill, strain into a cocktail glass and serve with a slice of lime. And make sure to give it a big sniff before sipping – nothing smells more like the Caribbean than rum and lime.

     

    *We reckon he might’ve nicked it from the British Navy who had long been drinking grog made with rum, lemon or lime and sugar. And we reckon the Navy would’ve used dark rum. So perhaps our Dark Rum Daiquiri is the original after all…?

    **Make this yourself by gently heating a small amount of water into which you dissolve the same amount of sugar. Allow to cool before using.

     

    The post Cocktail recipe: how to make a Dark Rum Daiquiri appeared first on Two Thirsty Gardeners.


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